2009-laboratory-manual

5th Edition, August 2009
ISBN 978-0-620-43586-4 
Contents

Chapter 1
Definitions and important formulae used in sugar factories

Chapter 2
Mass determination of factory materials
1. General
2. Cane
3. Imbibition water
4. Mixed juice
5. Press water mud
6. Final bagasse

Chapter 3
Calculations
1. General
2. Rules for rounding off
3. Cane payment requirements
4. Standard methods of calculation

Chapter 4
Equipment
1. Electronic cane trackers
2. Cane sampler
3. Cane sub-sampler
4. Screw conveyors
5. Motor control panel
6. Logic control panel
7. Sample shredder
8. Final bagasse samplers
9. Mixed juice sampler – cold juice
10. Mixed juice sampler – hot juice
11. Mixed juice sampler – insoluble solids
12. Juice mixer
13. Water dispenser
14. Cold digester
15. Decanter
16. Bowl washer
17. Cooling trough
18 Juice riffle

Chapter 5
Sampling
1. General
2. Cane
3. Final bagasse
4. Mixed juice
5. Clarifier mud
6. Filter feed (mud)

Chapter 6
Analytical methods
Section 1: Official Methods
Method 1.1 Preparation of cane extract
Method 1.2 Prepared cane pol
Method 1.3 Prepared cane Brix
Method 1.4 Prepared cane and bagasse moisture
Method 1.5 Prepared cane fibre
Method 1.6 Estimated soil in cane
Method 1.7 Mixed juice pol
Method 1.8 Mixed juice Brix
Method 1.9 Mixed juice sucrose
Method 1.10 Mixed juice purity
Method 1.11 Mixed juice insoluble solids
Method 1.12 Preparation of clarifier mud
Method 1.13 Clarifier mud pol
Method 1.14 Clarifier mud Brix
Method 1.15 Clarifier mud insoluble solids
Method 1.16 Press water clarifier mud pol, Brix and purity
Method 1.17 Press water clarifier mud insoluble solids

Section 2: Prepared cane and bagasse
Method 2.1 Preparation Index (PI)
Method 2.2 Displacement Rate Index (DRI)
Method 2.3 Calorific value
Method 2.4 Thermal ash
Method 2.5 Bagacillo screening

Section 3: Juices
Method 3.1 Brix, pol and purity
Method 3.2 Brix, NIR pol and purity
Method 3.3 pH
Method 3.4 ICUMSA colour
Method 3.5 Turbidity at 420 nm
Method 3.6 Conductivity ash
Method 3.7 Starch by the SMRI method
Method 3.8 Phosphate (P2O5)
Method 3.9 Reducing sugar by the Lane and Eynon method

Section 4: Filter cake, filter feed and filtrate
Method 4.1 Brix, pol and purity
Method 4.2 Brix, NIR pol and purity
Method 4.3 Moisture by oven drying
Method 4.4 pH
Method 4.5 Bagacillo to mud solids ratio
Method 4.6 Filter retention of mud solids

Section 5: Syrup and remelt
Method 5.1 Brix, pol and purity
Method 5.2 Brix, NIR pol and purity
Method 5.3 pH
Method 5.4 Reducing sugars by the Lane and Eynon method
Method 5.5 ICUMSA 420 colour and turbidity
Method 5.6 Gums
Method 5.7 Starch by the SMRI method
Method 5.8 Conductivity ash
Method 5.9 Calcium and magnesium by EDTA titration

Section 6: Boiling house products (A-, B- and C-molasses, A-, B- and C-nutsch, A-, B- and C- massecuite, seed and magma)
Method 6.1 Brix, pol and purity
Method 6.2 Moisture by vacuum oven
Method 6.3 Moisture by Karl Fischer titration
Method 6.4 Conductivity ash
Method 6.5 Sucrose and reducing sugars by the Lane and Eynon method
Method 6.6 Glucose, fructose and sucrose by gas chromatography
Method 6.7 Gums
Method 6.8 Starch by the SMRI method

Section 7: Raw sugar
Method 7.1 Pol
Method 7.2 NIR pol
Method 7.3 Affination
Method 7.4 Moisture by oven drying
Method 7.5 ICUMSA 420 colour
Method 7.6 Reducing sugars by the Luff Schoorl method
Method 7.7 Gums
Method 7.8 Starch by the SMRI method
Method 7.9 Starch by the SASTA simplified method
Method 7.10 Dextran by the haze method
Method 7.11 Conductivity ash
Method 7.12 pH
Method 7.13 Insoluble solids
Method 7.14 Phosphates (P2O5)
Method 7.15 Grain size distribution

Section 8: Refined sugar

Method 8.1 Pol
Method 8.2 Moisture by oven drying
Method 8.3 Moisture by Karl Fischer titration
Method 8.4 ICUMSA 420 colour
Method 8.5 Turbidity at 420 nm
Method 8.6 Turbidity at 720 nm
Method 8.7 Reducing sugars by the Knight and Allen method
Method 8.8 Conductivity ash
Method 8.9 Insoluble solids
Method 8.10 Sulphite (SO2) by the Rosaniline method
Method 8.11 Grain size distribution
Method 8.12 Visual appearance
Method 8.13 Odour, odour on acidification and taste
Method 8.14 Ten-day low Brix floc
Method 8.15 Test tube caking
Method 8.16 Bulk density
Method 8.17 Chlorides (as NaCl)
Method 8.18 Total mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and moulds by the membrane filter method
Method 8.19 Total thermophilic organisms, flat sour spores, anaerobic organisms producing sulphide and anaerobic organisms producing gas

Section 9: Water and effluent
Method 9.1 pH
Method 9.2 Bacteria by the membrane filter method
Method 9.3 Total hardness
Method 9.4 Total dissolved solids (TDS)
Method 9.5 Insoluble solids
Method 9.6 Phosphates (P2O5)
Method 9.7 Silica
Method 9.8 Conductivity
Method 9.9 Sulphites
Method 9.10 Alkalinity
Method 9.11 Chlorides (Cl-) and sodium chloride (NaCl)
Method 9.12 Chemical oxygen demand (COD)

Section 10: Sugar traces
Method 10.1 The phenol-sulphuric acid method
Method 10.2 The resorcinol method
Method 10.3 The a-naphthol test

Section 11: Miscellaneous
Method 11.1 Available calcium oxide (CaO) in lime
Method 11.2 Total and basic lead in lead sub-acetate
Method 11.3 a-Amylase activity
Method 11.4 Tops and trash in whole stick cane

Appendix
Reference Tables
Table 1: Temperature corrections to the refractometer Brix of sugar solutions
Table 2: Solubility of sucrose in 100 g water at different temperatures
Table 3: Brix, apparent density and concentration of sucrose solutions at 20°C
Table 4: Mass per unit volume of pure sugar solutions at 20°C